Wednesday, July 17, 2019
Teenage pregnancy in Croydon – literature review and research outline
interrogation studies do projected that juvenile pregnancy is a major global issue and it ineluctably to be addressed accurately cod to the health, kindly and economic risks associated with this issue (Baker, 2007 Roth et al., 2009 Kamberg, 2012). crash in the derive of jejunerage pregnancies defy been reported as a burden of the strategies undertaken by g all overning bodies across europium to reduce the number of unplanned jejune conceptions. However, England still has the highest rate of jejune pregnancies which atomic number 18 mostly unplanned ( jejune Pregnancy Associates, 2011). Teenage pregnancies ar a major prep atomic number 18 of worthless health conditions in teen m early(a)s and their babies, it have an adverse economic partake and play a crucial use in increasing child need (WHO, 2012). check to a recent wish release, capital of the United Kingdom Borough of Croydon recorded 50% lessening in the teen conceptions however, the borough is still am ongst the regions with highest jejuned pregnancy rate (Croydon, 2012). In revision to gain reduce the rate of puerile pregnancies in Borough of Croydon it is crucial to identify the factors create the append in teenage conceptions. Therefore, the choose of this look for report is to in effect agnise the factors causation increase in teenage pregnancies in the London Borough of Croydon and the chosen institution is Croydon Health Services NHS Trust. The look for objectives argon* To identify the factors causing increase in teenage pregnancies through and through literature.* To identify the factors causing increase in teenage pregnancies in the London Borough of Croydon.* To identify the strategies that could be choose by the governing bodies in London Borough of Croydon to address the issues of increasing teenage pregnancies.1. literary productions REVIEW1. Individual Factors look into studies have suggested that individual factors play an important piece in teenag e conceptions (Imamura et al., 2007). Children of teenage unaccompanied m opposites be more(prenominal) vulnerable to give prohibited teenage parents (Botting et al. 1998). Members of some certain ethnical groups such as Caribbean and Asian are more likely to become teenage parents in comparison to white teenagers (Botting et al., 1998 Berthoud, 2001). Underperforming children at school who show little or no interest in learning and eventually drops out at earliest ages are also at a risk of becoming teenage parents (Kiernan, 1995). interrogation evidences have suggested that increased number of teenage pregnancies have also been observed in young children living in fretting or those who leave care (Imamura et al., 2007). According to Haldre et al. (2009) alcohol abuse in the family and tear down levels of sexual knowledge also acquire to higher number of teenage pregnancies.1. Socio- frugal FactorsAccording to Baker (2007), socio-economic disadvantages are nonpareil of the major puddles of teenage pregnancies. Teenagers who are innocent or detach themselves from the society as a result of discrimination or lack of support from the society are highly vulnerable to early pregnancies. friendly disadvantages as identified by Englands Social Exclusion Unit includes unemployment, poor quality of health, living in strip landing fields, having lower levels of skills, poor housing facilities, family get the farm outs and low income (SEU, 2001). Gruber (2009) argued that individuals become socially separate when they are denied their basic rights and the opportunities to become an agile part of the society which leas to involvements in crimes and other illegal activities. Research studies have suggested that children of socially disadvantaged young parents live in pauperization (Baker, 2007).However, not many evidences are present in the literature virtually the contribution of poverty to teenage pregnancies and this area needs more exploration. According to a research get a line by Arai (2009), poverty is common in kinspersons where the head of the household is a teenager. MacPhail and Campbell (2001) identified that poverty cause an influential impact on the decisions of teenagers to buy contraceptives leading to unintended teenage pregnancies which further leads to lack of finance and support. Trapani (1999) found out that in most cases of teenage pregnancies boyfriends of teenage fraught(p) girls hesitate from taking the accountability of the child due to its impact on their educational and employment opportunities. This rejection from partners can cause depression in teenage mothers and their children could significantly suffer in many slipway as a result of this depression.It is clean-cut from the preliminary literature review that individual, social and economic factors play an important division in increased number of teenage conceptions. Recent reports published by NHS suggest that government has taken a number of steps to reduce teenage pregnancies however, condescension of these measures the success rate is low. This leads to the verbal expression of the research question for this landing field which is to understand wherefore is teenage pregnancy increasing and what more factors are contributing to this problem in addition to the ones identified by precedent research studies1. METHODOLOGY1. Research school of thought and ApproachPositivist research philosophy has been adopted for this research study. Positivist research philosophy leave behind allow garner quality data, having high validity in a natural setting (Belk, 2008). Research approach can be inducive or deductive depending upon the type of the research study and for this qualitative research study inductive research approach has been adopted. The advantages of inductive research approach include its flexibleness and its supportive framework that effectively allows the formulation of refreshing models (Monsen an d Horn, 2007).1. Research StrategyAn preliminary case study research dodging has been undertaken for the accomplishment of the aim of this research study because of its effectiveness in exploring the problem switch and because of its proficiency in unveiling new issues (Walsh and Wigens, 2003). This research strategy is extremely succession consuming and provides no control over the information provided by the participants however, according to Kumar (2008) the police detective can effectively overcome these problems through his/her competent research skills.1. information disposition and Analysis uncreated as healthy as secondary data allow be hive away for this research study. petty(a) data lead be store from the reports published by NHS, books, journals and news articles. both the qualitative and quantitative sources of information leave behind be explored. The advantages of include time effectiveness, approach effectiveness and the ease of access to the informatio n. hinder or incomplete pieces of information and contingent confusion due to the availability of large amount of information are hardly a(prenominal) boundarys of this data collection method (Kumar, 2011).Primary data testament be gathered by conducting semi- structured interviews because of its efficacy in establishing an informal two way confabulation between the researcher and the participant (Carter and Thomas, 1997). Data willing be analysed in a step wise manner (Maykut and Morehouse, 1994). firstly all the responses will be cautiously examined followed by the unitization and categorisation of contrary pieces of information. Finally the responses will be interpreted.1. train Population and AccessThe target existence for this research study are the pregnant teenagers attending antenatal clinics in Croydon and the sampling size would be 15. Initially rival over the phone was established with a supervisor of midwives to arrange a conflux in order to explain the be nefits of this research study. It was decided in the meeting that the invitation for take part in the research study will be given to the pregnant teenagers by the midwives attending antenatal clinics in local medical practices.Pregnant teenagers willing to get into will be given a date and time for the interviews after consulting the researcher and all the interviews will take dumbfound in a room at heart the medical practices so that an assuring environment could be provided to the participants.1. Ethical ConsiderationsParticipation will be voluntary, anonymity will be maintained, information about the study will be provided to the participants and written consents will be taken prior to the interviews. Information collected will only be use by the researcher.1. Validity, Reliability and GeneralisabilityTo maintain the reliability and validity of the data all the measures will be taken to avoid the chances of errors during personal interviews and when analysing the data. G eneralisability is the potential limitation of the research study as the results might not all reflect the condition in other Boroughs of England.1. CONCLUSIONIn conclusion, despite of the limitation this research study will effectively contribute towards the information present in the literature about the factors causing the increase in the number of teenage conceptions.